In the last videos I talked about the derivatives

of simple functions, things like powers of x, sin(x), and exponentials, the goal being

to have a clear picture or intuition to hold in your mind that explains where these formulas

come from. Most functions you use to model the world

involve mixing, combining and tweaking these these simple functions in some way; so our

goal now is to understand how to take derivatives of more complicated combinations; where again,

I want you to have a clear picture in mind for each rule. This really boils down into three basic ways

to combine functions together: Adding them, multiplying them, and putting one inside the

other; also known as composing them. Sure, you could say subtracting them, but

that’s really just multiplying the second by -1, then adding. Likewise, dividing functions is really just

the same as plugging one into the function 1/x, then multiplying. Most functions you come across just involve

layering on these three types of combinations, with no bound on how monstrous things can

become. But as long as you know how derivatives play

with those three types of combinations, you can always just take it step by step and peal

through the layers. So, the question is, if you know the derivatives

of two functions, what is the derivative of their sum, of their product, and of the function

compositions between them? The sum rule is the easiest, if somewhat tounge-twisting

to say out loud: The derivative of a sum of two functions is the sum of their derivatives. But it’s worth warming up with this example

by really thinking through what it means to take a derivative of a sum of two functions,

since the derivative patterns for products and function composition won’t be so straight

forward, and will require this kind of deeper thinking. The function f(x)=sin(x) + x2 is a function

where, for every input, you add together the values of sin(x) and x2 at that point. For example, at x=0.5, the height of the

sine graph is given by this bar, the height of the x2 parabola is given by this bar, and

their sum is the length you get by stacking them together. For the derivative, you ask what happens as

you nudge the input slightly, maybe increasing it to 0.5+dx. The difference in the value of f between these

two values is what we call df. Well, pictured like this, I think you’ll

agree that the total change in height is whatever the change to the sine graph is, what we might

call d(sin(x)), plus whatever the change to x2 is, d(x2). We know the derivative of sine is cosine,

and what that means is that this little change d(sin(x)) would be about cos(x)dx. It’s proportional to the size of dx, with

a proportionality constant equal to cosine of whatever input we started at. Similarly, because the derivative of x2 is

2x, the change in the height of the x2 graph is about 2x*dx. So, df/dx, the ratio of the tiny change to

the sum function to the tiny change in x that caused it, is indeed cos(x)+2x, the sum of

the derivatives of its parts. But like I said, things are a bit different

for products. Let’s think through why, in terms of tiny

nudges. In this case, I don’t think graphs are our

best bet for visualizing things. Pretty commonly in math, all levels of math

really, if you’re dealing with a product of two things, it helps to try to understand

it as some form of area. In this case, you might try to configure some

mental setup of a box whose side-lengths are sin(x) and x2. What would that mean? Well, since these are functions, you might

think of these sides as adjustable; dependent on the value of x, which you might think of

as a number that you can freely adjust. So, just getting the feel for this, focus

on that top side, whose changes as the function sin(x). As you change the value of x up from 0, it

increases in up to a length of 1 as sin(x) moves towards its peak. After that, it starts decreasing as sin(x)

comes down from 1. And likewise, that height changes as x2. So f(x), defined as this product, is the area

of this box. For the derivative, think about how a tiny

change to x by dx influences this area; that resulting change in area is df. That nudge to x causes the width to change

by some small d(sin(x)), and the height to change by some d(x2). This gives us three little snippets of new

area: A thin rectangle on the bottom, whose area is its width, sin(x), times its thin

height, d(x2); there’s a thin rectangle on the right, whose area is its height, x2,

times its thin width, d(sin(x)). And there’s also bit in the corner. But we can ignore it, since its area will

ultimately be proportional to dx2, which becomes negligible as dx goes to 0. This is very similar to what I showed last

video, with the x2 diagram. Just like then, keep in mind that I’m using

somewhat beefy changes to draw things, so we can see them, but in principle think of

dx as very very small, meaning d(x2) and d(sin(x)) are also very very small. Applying what we know about the derivative

of sine and x2, that tiny change d(x2) is 2x*dx, and that tiny change d(sin(x)) is cos(x)dx. Dividing out by that dx, the derivative df/dx

is sin(x) by the derivative of x2, plus x2 by the derivative of sine. This line of reasoning works for any two functions. A common mnemonic for the product rule is

to say in your head “left d right, right d left”. In this example, sin(x)*x2, “left d right”

means you take the left function, in this case sin(x), times the derivative of the right,

x2, which gives 2x. Then you add “right d left”: the right

function, x2, times the derivative of the left, cos(x). Out of context, this feels like kind of a

strange rule, but when you think of this adjustable box you can actually see how those terms represent

slivers of area. “Left d right” is the area of this bottom

rectangle, and “right d left” is the area of this rectangle on the right. By the way, I should mention that if you multiply

by a constant, say 2*sin(x), things end up much simpler. The derivative is just that same constant

times the derivative of the function, in this case 2*cos(x). I’ll leave it to you to pause and ponder

to verify that this makes sense. Aside from addition and multiplication, the

other common way to combine functions that comes up all the time is function composition. For example, let’s say we take the function

x2, and shove it on inside sin(x) to get a new function, sin(x2). What’s the derivative of this new function? Here I’ll choose yet another way to visualize

things, just to emphasize that in creative math, we have lots of options. I’ll put up three number lines. The top one will hold the value of x, the

second one will represent the value of x2, and that third line will hold the value of

sin(x2). That is, the function x2 gets you from line

1 to line 2, and the function sine gets you from line 2 to line 3. As I shift that value of x, maybe up to the

value 3, then value on the second shifts to whatever x2 is, in this case 9. And that bottom value, being the sin(x2),

will go over to whatever the sin(9) is. So for the derivative, let’s again think

of nudging that x-value by some little dx, and I always think it’s helpful to think

of x starting as some actual number, maybe 1.5. The resulting nudge to this second value,

the change to x2 caused by such a dx, is what we might call d(x2). You can expand this as 2x*dx, which for our

specific input that length would be 2*(1.5)*dx, but it helps to keep it written as d(x2) for

now. In fact let me go one step further and give

a new name to x2, maybe h, so this nudge d(x2) is just dh. Now think of that third value, which is pegged

at sin(h). It’s change d(sin(h)); the tiny change caused

by the nudge dh. By the way, the fact that it’s moving left

while the dh bump is to the right just means that this change d(sin(h)) is some negative

number. Because we know the derivative of sine, we

can expand d(sin(h)) as cos(h)*dh; that’s what it means for the derivative of sine to

be cosine. Unfolding things, replacing h with x2 again,

that bottom nudge is cos(x2)d(x2). And we could unfold further, noting that d(x2)

is 2x*dx. And it’s always good to remind yourself

of what this all actually means. In this case where we started at x=1.5 up

top, this means that the size of that nudge on the third line is about cos(1.52)*2(1.5)*(the

size of dx); proportional to the size of dx, where the derivative here gives us that proportionality

constant. Notice what we have here, we have the derivative

of the outside function, still taking in the unaltered inside function, and we multiply

it by the derivative of the inside function. Again, there’s nothing special about sin(x)

and x2. If you have two functions g(x) and h(x), the

derivative of their composition function g(h(x)) is the derivative of g, evaluated at h(x),

times the derivative of h. This is what we call the “chain rule”. Notice, for the derivative of g, I’m writing

it as dg/dh instead of dg/dx. On the symbolic level, this serves as a reminder

that you still plug in the inner function to this derivative. But it’s also an important reflection of

what this derivative of the outer function actually represents. Remember, in our three-lines setup, when we

took the derivative of sine on the bottom, we expanded the size of the nudge d(sin) as

cos(h)*dh. This was because we didn’t immediately know

how the size of that bottom nudge depended on x, that’s kind of the whole thing we’re

trying to figure out, but we could take the derivative with respect to the intermediate

variable h. That is, figure out how to express the size

of that nudge as multiple of dh. Then it unfolded by figuring out what dh was. So in this chain rule expression, we’re

saying look at the ratio between a tiny change in g, the final output, and a tiny change

in h that caused it, h being the value that we’re plugging into g. Then multiply that by the tiny change in h

divided by the tiny change in x that caused it. The dh’s cancel to give the ratio between

a tiny change in the final output, and the tiny change to the input that, through a certain

chain of events, brought it about. That cancellation of dh is more than just

a notational trick, it’s a genuine reflection of the tiny nudges that underpin calculus. So those are the three basic tools in your

belt to handle derivatives of functions that combine many smaller things: The sum rule,

the product rule and the chain rule. I should say, there’s a big difference between

knowing what the chain rule and product rules are, and being fluent with applying them in

even the most hairy of situations. I said this at the start of the series, but

it’s worth repeating: Watching videos, any videos, about these mechanics of calculus

will never substitute for practicing them yourself, and building the muscles to do these

computations yourself. I wish I could offer to do that for you, but

I’m afraid the ball is in your court, my friend, to seek out practice. What I can offer, and what I hope I have offered,

is to show you where these rules come from, to show that they’re not just something

to be memorized and hammered away; but instead are natural patterns that you too could have

discovered by just patiently thinking through what a derivative means. Thank you to everyone who supported this series,

and once more I’d like to say a special thanks to Brilliant.org. For those of you who want to go flex those

problem solving muscles, Brilliant offers a platform aimed at training you to think

like a mathematician. I don’t know about you, but I’ve always

found it all too easy to fall into the habit of just reading math or watching lectures

without taking the time to do some real problem-solving in between, even though that’s always the

part where I learn the most. Brilliant is a great place to get that practice,

and if you visit brilliant.org/3b1b, or more simply follow the link on the screen and in

the description, it lets them know you came from this channel. Their calculus material is a nice complement

to this series, but some of my other favorites are their probability and complex algebra

sequences.

Next up will derivative of exponential functions. See the full playlist at http://3b1b.co/calculus

Check out Brilliant: http://3b1b.co

Your videos are priceless……….i can only hope that people will not try and convince you to sell these for money……it will only decrease the value of your videos……

We all are doing the problems when the change in value i.e.,dx tends to zero but if the change is high value.what is the situation?

this series literally are giving me goosebumps. i feel enlightened, it's like i've been given the forbidden fruit.

jesus

15:00 how is this mf watching the video he's a part of

pi creature time loop confirmed?!

It feels so satisfying to finally understand these concepts after 2 years of studying calculus

If only I had Learned calculus through visualization. Because unlearning and relearning is so much more difficult. I find this method of understanding calculus as actually more difficult then just following the book.

In the sum rule: when you said you added the derivatives of the functions sin(x) and x2… It seemed that you added the area/line under the curve of the function itself, instead of the line under the derivatives curve 🤔🤔🤔

If you could have some other background color

What is derivative of x(sin(x)^2)

what a godsend

👍👍👍

😊😊😊

🚫😴

your videos changed my life , they really did !

The Chinese translation of this video is terrible.

Thank you Grant for this amazing wonderful channel – spreading knowledge to the masses in such a revolutionary way of teaching. I hope you continue getting the support you deserve for your great work. With regards to this video I have one question. You mentioned that `d(x-squared)` would evaluate to 2xdx. That makes sense as you explained this in the last video of this series. However, I didn't understand why `d(sin(x))` would evaluate to `cos(x)dx`, as in why multiply by `dx`, as part of its derivative? In your last video when you explained how the derivative `d(sin(θ))` becomes `cos(θ)`, but there was no mention that it's also multiplied by dx! A clarification over why the derivative of `d(sin(θ))` is `cos(θ) mutiplied by dx` would be really appreciated. Same question goes for why d(sin(h)) is equivalent to cos(h)dh (i.e. it is multiplied by dh)? Many thanks in advance.

Please also make for analytic function I'm always unable to visualise and hence understand this.

Great video!

You videos are simpy amazing. I'm curious to know what video editing software you are using. It looks really so cool !

I have a problem with sin(x) being horizontal for differing values of x. Am I missing something?

How can we access to the books on mechanics of calculus and the references you might have needed to take help from?

man you are so good

Just one question on the product rule, why does cos(x)*2x = dx^2?

I was wondering about chain rule. That was fantastic, Thank you.

its cool that the product rule can be used instead of the quotient rule

Hey, 3B1B, I'm a first year engineering student discovering calculus. I love the visualisations you do. Yet, as you said, one must practice to become fluent in the calculations. Do you have any suggestions for good websites with questions and answers to practice?

After all these legendary explanation no one dared to solve the differential of what occurred at 14:55 No this can't happen here is the mighty answer:-

4(e^sinx. Cos(1/x^3+x^3))

×(cosx.e^sinx.cos(1/x^3+x^3)

+ 3(1/x^4-x^2)sin(1/x^3+x^3).e^sinx)

I asked my teacher for the proof of product rule, and he was like, "No, No . It's NOT in the SYLLABUS"

Pretty much he only taught me how to solve questions not how to understand mathematics.

I love you 3Blue1Brown

YOU ARE GOD

Oh no. I'm falling in love with math.

Traducción inglés-español please

You might actually be the best math teacher that ever lived! (if you consider the numbers you can reach with the internet). Thank you for what you do, brought passion back into math for me after getting crushed in a 5 year physics degree >< now I can't stop drawing connections between the high level understandings you elucidate!

Smh, I first read the quote as “peeing on an onion” and I thought, “I mean I guess it is mildly unpleasant and somewhat confusing, and a bit of a non sequitur, weird metaphor though”

Math online tutor 020201154388892

Beautiful!

Around 7:00 about the product rule… why do you literally ignore that smallest part of the area increase by saying ”because dx is really small”, but not for the other parts

you are a bliss for mathematics

at 3:23, Is d(x2) taken from correct function?

I prefer 3blue1brown than Khan academy

If someone made a structural engineering series as good as this we would have a load of people interested in going into engineering. The great thing about this series is that all this mathematics from 3B1B is extremely relevant to engineering and other real-world fields. The problem for the most part is that people are interested in stupid things like quantum mechanics and relativity because it's so weird but they will never actually apply that knowledge to anything.

The last couple minutes, you sound sooo nice 😂💙

Big like

So I'm trying to convince myself that the little red rectangle can be discarded, but I don't see why. Sure, it's infinitesimal – but so are the other things there…

How come the result is not dh(x)/dx * g(x) + dg(x)/dx * h(x) + dh(x)/dx * dg(x)/dx ?

Congratulations to the Channel! These videos are awesome! I've recommended to my chemistry students too.

Whenever the blue pis are confused， they scratch their eyeballs

Fortunately I got to know about you through "DOS",and now I'm marvelled with your thoughts , explanation , visualisation , narration and everything else…….

I'm gonna go make a new language for the sole purpose of expressing how amazing this series is

Thank you for these lovely videos. I have taken Calculus 1 but quickly became scared I lost my knowledge of it due to the lack of usage of the rules, however now I can see once again, as I did in the beginning why it is mainly a conceptual jump than route memorization. You've erased my anxiety about the concept by being so thoughtful in your videos. I will definitely support you on Patreon soon.

I don't get the quotient (1/f(x))

I've been learning for the last weeks for my phd defense and watched a lot of videos, but you are really on top of all learning sources: best explanation, best animation, easiest understanding..! Please carry on and thanks a lot!

Will be cool to have an interactive plot where you can interact with the 3 axis plot for visualizing the chain rule, great series! Thank you!

The quote made me laugh for like 5 minutes 🙂

I'm a little upset with brilliant.org... I learned divergence/convergence and subsets pretty quick through them… But they deleted my posts on Boolean function and astrophysics.

I don't know how this can get one thumbs down, let alone over 100.

One thing I would like to share my experience with you all during my JEE preparation days. (JEE Advanced is India's most difficult Engineering entrance exam. It contains topics from Algebra, Trigonometry, 3D Geometry, Calculus, Classical Physics, Electromagnetism, Atomic Physics, Organic Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry and Physical Chemistry as it's syllabus)

Since the entire portion of the advanced exam needed to be completed in 16 months or so, we were never really explained the basic crux of calculus and I was not that brilliant at that time to ask all sorts of questions. I never questioned as to why we needed to trust what was in the books. What inspiration did the inventor might have gotten while working this subject out? Never asked about it. Never imagined about it. But coming on this channel, I realised that how asking questions is the ultimate roadmap for answers. I know all the rules and stuff. But I still get exited like a 10 year old when the inner workings of these are shown to me. Keep up the good work, +3Blue1Brown!

Thank you.

The examples he uses here are sin(x) and x^2.

The Desmos logo has a parabola and a sine wave on it.

Coincidence?

how do you create you animations

Can you make a visualization video about the quotient rule? The Quotient rule is hard to imagine.

At 6:55, why wouldn't it be sin(dx)x^2 + (dx)^2sin(x), instead of d(sin(x))x^2 + d(x^2)sin(x) ? Are they the same, or is there something I'm missing?

in 6:18 how will the last tiny area be proportional to (dx)^2?? (not imprtnt but juzt wanna know)

no more korean substitutes? nooo…

I wish I saw this series 15 years ago in university. It would've made my life a lot simpler.

Derivative of the function at 1:26

(12x⁻⁴+12x²)e⁴ˢᶦⁿ⁽ˣ⁾sin(x⁻³+x³)cos³(x⁻³+x³)+eˢᶦⁿ⁽ˣ⁾cos(x)cos(x⁻³+x³)

I remember the product rule by saying uwu

The chain rule workthrough was elegent and eye-opening. Absolutely loved it. I'm about to work through a load of problems not by using the rules I memorised, but by breaking them down like you have here. Thanks, man.

Why is d(x^2)=2xdx? I understand that 2x is the derivative of x^2, but why are they equal?

Hows it 2xdx

from the product rule: will it always be possible to substitute the derivative of a function with the actual function (d(x^2) <=> 2x)? it seems a little weird for me that you could easily do df = sin(x)dx^2+x^2*dsin(x) = sin(x)2x+x^2*cos(x): so i'm wondering if there is some underlying rule to follow.

Was lucky enough to have a teacher in high school who explain the chain rule and other calculus topics the way they are here. Not as visually appealing, but with the same inquisitive approach to learning. It makes a whole lot of difference on having kids love the course and not dread it.

He said fuck dx^2

Someone could tell me what “notch” means pls.

I used your chain rule explanation to get a grasp of Jacobians.

Love And respect ❤❤❤

Thank you so much for this series! This has helped me understand calculus on an intuitive level, not just memorizing formulas and patterns. This is awesome, you're awesome, and keep it up!!

there is a typo in the visualization of first example at 3:50. the green derivative shown is d(f)/dt not d(x^2)/dt.

Anyone knows a good channel for probability and statistics like 3blue1brown?

The product rule of derivative is so enlightening. Never knew, neither imagined! This is not just calculus. This is more like a realization through some philosophy! Pranamam GURU (Namaskara in a deepest, revered sense)

Bro u are the best

Great

very awesome, you are the father of any mathematician.

Hi. I am a CS undergrad. These vids are so interesting.

Other youtubers of nearly same level are OAlabs, Practical Engineers, Live Overflow, Kurzgesta in nutshell, Vsauce, Veritasium.

Brilliant is not a great place, by now many have learned this…

((e^sin(x))×cos(1÷(x^3)+x^3))^4

The literal monster presented in the video

I like the music

I still cannot visualize the chain rule with this explanation, my way of visualizing it is:

Imagine a curve drawn on a paper, let's call that curve f and each point of the curve f(t), the f(0) y f(1) being the endpoints and moving t from 0 to 1 traverses the curve.

Imagine then that we put the paper over a rock surface with different engravings, bending the paper to fit the rock surface perfectly, let's call the surface S and S(p) the height of the surface at the point p.

In this way, if we move 0 to 1 and check the value of S(f(t)) it would follow the curve in the paper that is being bended by the rock surface.

The derivative of f is the direction of the curve when the paper is flat, and the derivative of S(f) would be the direction of the curve when it's on the bended paper.

¿How could we know the derivative of S(f), specifically (S(f))'(t) ?

First we check how is the lope of the surface S around the point being asked, that means, the derivative of S evaluated on f(t), or S'(f(t))

Then, what's the direction of the curve in the paper of that point, that is f'(t)

Then project the direction on the slope of S, that is the dot product between S'(f(t)) and f'(t). And then you have it: the chain rule.

The downside: it requires vector calculus, so it's not suitable for someone learning calculus for the first time.

But what happens when sin(x) in 5:08 becomes -ve ?

American notation:

f(x) = g(x) * h(x)

df/dx = g(x)*dh/dx + h(x)*dg/dx

European notation:

f(x) = g(x) * h(x)

f'(x) = g'(x)*h(x) + g(x)*h'(x)

Can't you just show the proof for chain rule using u substitution?

Did I understand ?

Well yes but actually no

The "dx" that we write in derivatives and integrals still feels like a notation to me… I really have to beat this thought and think of it as a tiny little change of x. It should be easy, but it's actually quite difficult when the mathematical notations are so confusing. You can't really express those whole words just with letters (especially something like "tiny little change over something") – I mean if you just see "dx" without context you might think it's the product of d by x or something like that.

If there is ONE thing that I want to improve, it's the mathematical notations. I loved your triangle of power for example.

But it's even more difficult, because notations have to be concise (lots of informations in few space), meaningful (symbols reflecting what they mean), unique (avoid different symbols meaning the same thing, like what we have for product or division), precise (avoid confusion), promote generalization (similar ideas = similar notations), and finally, its format has to reflect organization (meaning symbols, but also graphical placement). Those words are not from me, I don't remember where I read this though. Maybe I'll find it one day.

I suppose if we perform calculations in a certain algorithm, a program where the differential does not really approach zero, but is equal to some specific small value that the hardware platform can allow us, then this differential can not be ignored in the calculation of the derivative?

That chain rule unfolding made me in awe.

13 seconds in and I've already died laughing from a calculus video.

Song?

Please do series on cryptography. 3b1b, you are the best.

error at 3:18

Brilliant! Just Brilliant! Congrats sir.

Thank you for the video! All of you friends are super awesome!

14:12 isn't it wrong to cancel those in reality

We first take these into limits and then cancel

Your explanations are gorgeous.