Congratulations, you just engaged in mental rotation. This is the process of imagining an object rotating in three-dimensional space. As it turns out, there’s actually some gender differences in performing mental rotation tasks. It appears that boys and man, perform better in these tasks. This appears to be universal, because they found similar findings in China, Japan, Ecuador, Ireland and in the US. So how do we organize information in our environment? Well we do so by labeling and naming things. We first do this in the most basic unit of knowledge, which is called a concept. The concept is a mental group of events, objects, or people. So, for example, the concept of an animal can include mental groups for birds and fish. And these can be broken down even further into different types of birds. For example, an eagle or sparrow. In different types of fish for example a catfish or a koi fish. These concepts help us in our attempt to organize and perceive the world. To that end we often engage in what’s called a concept hierarchy, as you see here which is an arrangement of concepts in a particular way. Some being really general, and some being more specific. And there’s two last definitions we need to address here. The first is category. A category is when multiple concepts are organized around one concept that they all have in common. For example, vehicles or trees. We can have all the different types of vehicles or all the different types of trees organized around this category. And these are well defined, but other categories can be kind of fuzzy. Such as good or consciousness. It can be difficult to order other concepts around one of these 2 concepts. And finally we have a prototype, which is the best fitting example of a category.