Namaskar Friends, Today’s video is going to be the most useful and knowledgeable video for you all so far. because here I’m going to explain you how can you research scientifically. If someone tells you about some Theory on a well known claim then how can find out how true it is It’s going to be most useful for the health related topics. Consider someone telling you to drink something as it is beneficial in so and so ways. Don’t eat this, it can lead to so and so harm. So how can you tell how much true is that using scientific proves. You can understand this video as a sequel to my Gau Mutra Video because even I have used the same techniques to know the facts for that video. and now I would like to teach you the same techniques. Friends, Internet is an amazing thing. One the one hand it has so much knowledge and information available that you can even learn to make the space rocket. on the other hand it has so much misinformation that you even get fooled by the nonsense like flat earth theory. The people who believes that our earth is not round but flat. These two are the most extreme examples but most of the lies in the center and it’s difficult to recognise what is the truth and what’s fake. First I will tell you the 5 Most important things which you need to keep in mind while reading any information on the internet. before reading any claim. First thing is friends, the Agenda. If someone is selling you anything then it’s a big warning sign. Maybe it’snot the 100% lie but if someone is selling you something then the chances are so that they may elaborate the advantages of the product to a great extent by exaggerating it. This thing you can see the most in the weight loss supplements, hair loss products and in the things like cow’s urine. so here you have to keep in mind to separate their personal opinions from the scientific facts. Second thing is the source of information. Anyone can create their websites and blogs to write anything on the internet. We have to look for the source given for any big claim made on the website. Source should talk about the scientific research which has proved that such thing results in the weight loss and our product has this ingredient. our just for the name sake they have mentioned that our product is able to do so and so things and you should believe because we have written it. If it’s so then it shouldn’t be believed on, not at all! If they have mentioned the source of their big claim then it can be looked forward on. Third things Friends are Anecdotes. Anecdotes are people’s personal experience.what is you personal experience had to say about anything. Imagine if someone tell you tomorrow that I had constipation since the last 5 years. I had tried everything and it wasn’t getting cured. Then babaji told me that every morning drink this lime water from Cocacola and with that eat cauliflower special fritters and I started having this and within a month all my constipation problem got vanished. So even you do it, it will cure yours too. Friends this is a very exaggerated example, whenever someone gives you an anecdote to fool you then it will be very believable. because personal experience is just a personal experience. It’s not an evidence for anything. It can be possible that the anecdote is true but we still don’t have sufficient proof for this. don’t believe on a product based on just the personal experiences. don’t believe on any information. Fourth thing is Appeal to Authority We have to understand this friends that experts are very important. qualification actually brings a lot of difference. Imagine you need a medical advice. On the one hand a normal person is advising you and on the other hand a doctor so obviously you will trust the doctor and you should because the doctor has more experience, he has studies in the same field so obviously he’ll know better. That’s why friends, whenever I make my videos on different topics then normally I consult the expert of that field. If I’m making a video on environment then I’ll consult an environmental expert. If I’m making a video on the bill being passed in the parliament then I’ll consult a parliament expert. At the same time friends we have to understand that even the opinion by the experts are not 100% time correct! This is a logical fallacy which is termed as “Appeal to authority” that means if an expert is talking about his field then there’s no guarantee that whatever he is talking is true. He can even say wrong! The very good example of this is Dr. Subramaniam Swamy He has amazing qualifications. He’s done PhD from Harvard, he’s a doctor, he has been an assistant professor, he is also an economist. But if you are going to listen to his statements and opinions then they are so illogical and nonsense that even you will wonder what is it! See, he has told in 2017 1$ will become 1rupee he stated that in 2018 India will overtake China so this shows that we can’t believe on just one expert. Experts opinion can also vary a lot. So what is the solution for this? The solution here is scientific consensus. Which is the 5th thing I would like to tell you about. Instead of just an expert if we take the opinion of many experts in a group and know their views then it will be a very good way to find the truth. This is done friends and this thing is called as Scientific consensus. For example the scientific consensus on Global warming and climate change is 97% that means 97% of scientist worldwide believe that global warming and climate change is happening and it’s due to the people. Now just like these 3% people you will always find some percentage of people who are like Subramanium Swamyji those who won’t believe here. So I would say that if there’s a consensus more than 80-90% in anything then it can be believed that it can be true. Scientific consensus are very shocking many a times. The opinions of the common people can be very different sometimes from that of the experts. I would like to show a very interesting chart Here the scientific consensus of 5000 different American scientists and of local people are been taken into the consideration So you can see how the opinions are so different for different questions. For example 88% scientists in America believes that the genetically modified foods are safe for humans. But only 37% of local people of US believe so! Now here you have to keep in mind that the question is very specific only for the Humans. If you are going to search for the environment, ecological impact of GMO foods then you will see that there’s no scientific consensus for it. The opinion of scientists is almost 50-50 here. Here you can also see about the vaccines, 86% scientists believes that vaccines are necessary for kids. Whereas just 68% of US people believes in vaccines. Human evolution- 98% scientists think that evolution is a truth whereas only 65% people in America thinks its a reality The problem here friends is that for everything we don’t have scientific consensus available. If you will ask for the scientific consensus on cow’s urine then you won’t get anything. For this we have to go deep into the individualised research papers and analyse them to reach the conclusions. So first let’s see what are the different types of scientific research papers? First type is Invitro Research Invitro means to conduct an experiment in the lab in a petri dish or a test tube. Whatever is the result of an in-vitro you can never extrapolate for a human body ever. Because there’s a great difference between the human body and the petri dish Think about it if you are testing a new medicine and that medicine is able to kill the bacteria in the petri dish Does that mean if you give the same medicine to a human it’s gonna kill the bacteria in his body too? You won’t even know whether it’s safe for a person to take such medicine or no! So that’s why In-vitro experiments have a very limited reach and conclusion. The opposite of this is In-vivo experiments In-vivo experiments are conducted on the living organisms it can be on animals or humans The experiments conducted on animals there rats are the most useful ones to conduct the experiments. because the genetic similarities of rats are very similar to that of the humans But inspite of that a successful experiment on an animals doesn’t definitely count to be successful on humans too. There are a wide chances of it’s success on humans but still a no guarantee. Next good way to research on humans is Randomized Controlled Trials. Here a group of people is considered for example 100 people. All these 100 people will be of the same age group and their fitness and health level will be similar. Now randomly we will divide them into 2 groups. Like 50-50 We will administer the real medicine that we wants to test to one group and to the other 50 people’s group we will give the fake medicine. and later we will find the changes in these two groups. has a group shown any improvement as compared to the other group or not. So this will tell us the effectiveness of the medicine being given to them. So this is a very credible and a good way It is called a s gold standard in clinical trials Next type of research is systematic review. In systematic review question is asked related to a specific issue and all the previous researches related to this is evaluated and analysed and a conclusion based on it is considered. So basically a summary of the older researches is been written here. This is also a very credible way. It also called as Meta – analysis based on the way you analayse it based on the data from the previous researches. Systematic review is called as the strongest form of the medical review. It’s a sure shot proof of anything. Here I would like to bring an example I’ve told you in the Gau Mutra’s video that Pubmed and Researchgate are the websites where you can individual research papers and read their conclusions. so through that I will show an example. I searched vaccine safety on Pubmed I wanted to know how safe are vaccines and I wanted to go through the systematic review as it is the strongest form to prove something. So i filtered out systematic review. So here I saw a very good research on vaccine. which has analysed the safety basically of the vaccines. In the methodology of this systematic review you can see that have analysed the previous research on vaccines and filtered out the ones which stated adverse effects that is the problems on the vaccines being tested. So they analysed 20 thousand of researches and out of them adverse effects were found only in 67 of them. So they described this adverse effect that by using this vaccine if you have the immunology disorder then you can have this problem. so this was the negative effect that has arise due to the specific vaccine. Now in the conclusion they have written that there is no overall problem in the use of vaccines. except in the very very rare cases. Now there are some important things which you have to take care of while reading any scientific research paper The first thing is sample size. if you are reading about any experiment then please read about the sample size that this experiment was conducted on how many number of people. If the sample size is just 10 then it won’t give any conclusion. The more the number of sample size the less will be the error margin and accordingly the credibility of the research will increase. Second important thing that you have to keep in mind is that the correlation is not causation. Correlation means if you see any relation between two things that doesn’t mean that both the things has a cause and effect relation too. A very nice example of this is given in this chart This chart shows the shark attacks and ice cream sales over the years. you can see they are following each other very closely. Does this means that the increase in the ice cream sale leads to the increase in the shark attacks? It’s not like this The reason for this is that people consume ice cream more during summers and also go to the beach for swimming. hence shark attacks increases So here there is a relation between them but no cause and effect. Third important thing is the influence of industry Many people say that this research paper says that drinking milk is good then it could be funded by some dairy industry or some milk making industry must have funded this research paper There’s a very simple way to check this friends,When you go to full study you can scroll down till the end to see conflict of ineterest and they have to write that , it’s compulsory for any researcher. If it’s written that conflict of research non declared that means no one has funded that and it’s carried out by the independent scientist and if it’s funded by someone then here at the conflict of interest something will be mentioned. Fourth important thing is that never get trapped in your confirmation bias Never think that I will look for such researches who agrees to the opinions that I have. Infact it’s important to do the other way round You should look at those researches which do not agree with your opinions. and read those research to know their limitations and their conclusions and their results Limitations of those results through which you will understand whether your opinion is correct or not. So this is confirmation bias and be aware of it. and Fifth and the most important thing which you have to keep in mind is that the news websites always exaggerate the scientific researches. For the sake of click bait they exaggerate the result of the scientific research a lot. Sometimes its too much and then you get to see titles like milk causes cancer and some will say no milk is good for health and some will say no eggs are good and some will say eggs are not good. So such opposing results will be seen You will know the truth when you will visit these websites, read the exact research and check the type of the research is it randomized controlled trial or systematic review? and see the sample size then see whether it’s done in vitro or on humans and then find the conclusion about it So after looking at all this only then you can lead to a conclusion. now friends here I’ve given you a foundational knowledge, you don’t have to believe on any claim blind folded. You can do your research scientifically yourself If you have any query you can write it in the comment to ask me and one more small thing that I would like to tell you friends. If you are researching on any topic and if you don’t get any systematic review or any meta analysis for that topic and not even any randomised control trial for that topic that means this specific topic has insufficient research available and this just mean it needs more research You can’t lead to any conclusion whether it’s good or bad. No you can’t determine any conclusion Simply it means the need for more research In the next video I will analyse different researches done on cow’s urine and I will you their limitations what conclusions can be driven out from each of them. because there are many counter videos made on my last video on cow’s urine and stated all the research done which proves the benefits of cow’s urine for health and so you should drink it and to debunk that theory I will show you using these ways to research what conclusion can be taken out from those researchers. that upcoming video will be a good example to verify the real life use of all the knowledge that I’ve given you now. now cow’s urine is just one topic but there are many other health related topics about which make claims and talks are spread over the internet. Now recently a researcher said that coconut oil is poisonous and it’s been spread now. If you have any such question related to any health related topic which you want to explain through an example in my next topic and analyse it through various researches through which you can understand the truth then you comment down and let me know. and I will use that example in my next video So share this video friends with your friends and families and many will get to learn a lot. If you like my work and you want to support me then you can donate on patreon.com/DhruvRathee so that I can make more such videos that’s the primary source of my funding So let’s meet in the next video friends, Thank you.